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Monday, 30 September 2013 10:16



Scientific Report

Project PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0054

January – December 2013


  1. Joint research goals:

1. The International Symposium “Interconnectivity in the Mediterranean and Pontic World during the Hellenistic and Roman Periods” was a key intermediary activity (as stated in the project proposal) aimed at contributing to the successful accomplishment of the project. It took place on July 8-12 and was attended by all project team members and by guest specialists. The main purpose of this activity was to present the research results obtained until the midpoint of stage 2013 and prepare these studies for publication in a collective volume. By organizing this event in Constanţa (in partnership with the National Museum of History and Archaeology of Constanţa, Waterloo Institute for Hellenistic Studies, Waterloo, Ontario/Canada and the cultural complex “Callatis”, Mangalia) we intended to increase the national and international visibility of our project goals and involve a greater number of national and international researchers into our research endeavors. We would like to emphasize that one of the goals underlined in the project proposal is involvement in an international dialogue on problems related to polis in Hellenistic and Roman eras. The fact that the above-mentioned event was attended by not less than 33 foreign researchers from 16 countries, many of them scholars known worldwide, made us consider this goal as successfully accomplished, in spite of the fact that it seemed extremely difficult to be reached when we launched our project proposal. What we meant was building a network comprising specialists interested in research on the field of Black Sea in antiquity, a network which could lead us towards obtaining European funded projects. The agenda and abstracts of the presentations can be found on the project website ( The major responsibility for organizing this symposium was undertaken by the project director supported by the following team members: Livia Buzoianu, George Bilavschi, Margareta Munteanu, Iulian Bîrzescu, Florian Matei-Popescu, and Diana Stah.

2. Foreign study visits. Nine foreign trips were undertaken:  Austria (Victor Cojocaru), Germany (Victor Cojocaru), Greece (Iulian Bîrzescu, Florina Panait Bîrzescu), Serbia (Victor Cojocaru, Mădălina Dana, Ligia Ruscu), Ukraine (Victor Cojocaru). The exact dates, including the scientific and business reports related to the trips are included in the expenditure record sheet.

3. Domestic study visits. Twenty-four project-related domestic trips were undertaken (to institutions and archaeological sites in the country). We would like to mention the field trip undertaken by all team members on July 6/8-13 to the National Museum of History and Archaeology of Constanţa, Cultural Complex “Callatis” of Mangalia and numerous archaeological sites in Dobrogea, when attending the symposium referred to in paragraph one. The exact dates related to all domestic study visits can be found in the expenditure record sheet.

4. Presentations at international congresses and symposia (dissemination). Twenty project-related presentations were made by team members at the following scientific events: International Symposium “Interconnectivity in the Mediterranean and Pontic World during the Hellenistic and Roman Periods”, Constanţa/Romania, July 8-12 (Alexandru AVRAM: La mer Noire et la Méditerranée: quelques aspects concernant la mobilité des personnes, Costel CHIRIAC & Lucian MUNTEANU: Trade Connections between Asia Minor and the West-Pontic Area (1st-4th Century AD): Some Sphragistic and Numismatic Considerations, Victor COJOCARU: Die Beziehungen der nord-pontischen Griechen zu den außer-pontischen Regionen und Dynastien, einschließlich der römischen Hegemonialmacht: Historiographische Übersicht, Florian MATEI-POPESCU: The Horothesia of Dionysopolis and the Integration of the Western Pontic Greek Cities in the Roman Empire, Livia BUZOIANU: L’espace ouest-pontique sous l’empereur Tibère à la lumière d’un décret inédit découvert en Dobroudja [co-author M. Bărbulescu], Ligia RUSCU: Becoming Roman? Shifting Identities in the Western Pontic Greek Cities, Florina PANAIT BÎRZESCU: Wandering Cult Images between the Black Sea and the Aegean Cities in Hellenistic and Roman Times: from Dionysos Kathegemon to Dionysos Karpophoros, Iulian BÎRZESCU: Hellenistic and Roman Terracotta Offerings in the Western Pontic Sanctuaries, Costel CHIRIAC & Sever BOȚAN: Roman Glass Vessels in the West Pontic Area (1st-3rd Centuries AD). General Remarks, Adrian ROBU: Cités et souverains dans la Propontide: les réseaux d’alliances des cités du Bosphore Thrace, Mădălina DANA: D'Héraclée à Trapézonte: cités pontiques ou micrasiatiques?); “The 12th International Congress of Thracology”, Târgoviște (Romania), September 10-14, 2013 (Livia BUZOIANU: Repères chronologiques offerts par la céramique grecque importée); “Fifth International Congress on Black Sea Antiquity. The Danubian Lands between the Black Sea, Aegean and Adriatic Seas (7th Century B.C. – 10th Century A.D.)”, Belgrad/Serbia, September 17-21 (Ligia RUSCU: Religion and society on the western Black Sea shore, Mădălina DANA: Les médecins dans les provinces danubiennes, Victor COJOCARU: Antonia Tryphaina im östlichen dynastischen Netzwerk, Livia BUZOIANU: Stages in the presence of Greek imported products on Getic territory in Dobruja, Costel CHIRIAC: Roman lead seals and the connections between Scythia Minor and Asia Minor [3rd-5th centuries A.D.]); “The 3rd International Numismatic Congress”, September 20-21, Braşov/Romania (Lucian MUNTEANU & Costel CHIRIAC: Ancient and Byzantine Coins from the collection of the Natural History Museum from Iaşi [co-authorship B. Minea]); International Scientific Session “Pontica 2013”, October 3–4, Constanţa/Romania (Livia BUZOIANU: Original Greek Epigram from Tomis [co-authorship M. Bărbulescu], Costel CHIRIAC & Lucian MUNTEANU: Discovery of Roman seals at Ulmetum and related research issues [co-authorship C. Băjenaru]).

5. Publications (dissemination). We published the collective volume Poleis in the Black Sea: Inter-Pontic Relations and Local Production (hereinafter: PBS), edited by the following team members - Florina Panait Bîrzescu, Iulian Bîrzescu, Florian Matei-Popescu and Adrian Robu, Publishing House Humanitas, Bucharest 2013, 464 p. (including 28 plates). The work comprises the studies presented during the Symposium from September 27-28, 2012, organized within the project PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0054. The fact that our work was published by a Romanian publishing house accredited by CNCS is an eloquent proof for the successful accomplishment of the stated interim project goals (see below, part B). By publishing this work we set up a new collection – Pontica et Mediterranea (edited by Victor Cojocaru) – aimed at supporting the promotion of studies on ancient history, epigraphy, classical archeology, numismatics and iconography. In addition to this, twenty-five other studies and papers, and six extensive critical reviews were accepted for publication. More details about these papers can be found on the project website (, Publications). Please note that all above-mentioned studies indicate the name and number of the funding contract as follows: “This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority of Scientific Research, CNCS - UEFISCDI, project number PN- II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0054”.

6. Project website (dissemination). Our project website ( has been continuously updated being accessible in its Romanian and English version. The site provides data about the project itself, team members and more details reflecting the activities carried out by us. The address can be accessed by all known search engines (Google, Yahoo, Ask, Bing, Duck Duck Go, Yippy, Dogpile, Yandex, The Internet Archive, etc.). The two main menus acquired two more buttons – Publications and Useful Weblinks search, each of them displaying content in Romanian and English. The other menus were improved and complemented with new items, translated in Romanian and English (e.g. Activities, item Symposium 2013 – Timetable and Summaries; News – items Symposium 2012 and Symposium 2013). Responsible for updating the project webpage is George Bilavschi. Diana Stah translated and/or checked all items in English. The search button Activities acquired such subdomains as Activity Reports 2011-2013. Website access was expanded to, at least, 10 other search engines such as AltaVista, Infoseek, Coozilla, Dogpile, Lycos, Metager, Mamma, etc. The project website address was indexed on important specialized web pages like,,,,,, www.uaic. ro,,,,,, etc. At the same time each menu and sub-menu were continuously updated. Our data indicate that the website has had at least 300 visitors and was viewed around 14665 times.

B. Individual project goals (In what follows, we are going to present the extent to which project goals were achieved (as reflected in the proposal). Please note that more details in this regard can be found on the project website, along with publication list, abstracts of presentations from the International Symposium mentioned in Part A 1 of the present report).

· to obtain an overall picture of the external relations of Pontic Greek cities through exhaustive research – repertorying, mapping, commenting - the epigraphic and literary information (Victor Cojocaru, Ligia Ruscu, Mădălina Dana, Adrian Robu, Livia Buzoianu). We accomplished our study on inter-Pontic relations, including the relations with non-Greek populations from hinterland. This was reflected in five published studies which are 175 pages altogether: Ligia RUSCU: Relations of West Pontic Apoikiai relations with their Greek and barbarian neighbors in Hellenistic and Roman eras, in PBS, p. 11-44; Mădălina DANA: Ἔχω δὲ πατρίδας νῦν δύω (CIRB 134): relations and networks between the Greek cities in the South Black Sea area and their Pontic neighbors, in PBS, p. 45-86; Victor COJOCARU: The inter-Pontic relations of the Greek cities from the North Black Sea area and their contacts with the barbarians from hinterland based on epigraphic sources, in PBS, p. 87-142; Adrian ROBU: Shrines and relations between cities in the Hellenistic world: the examples of Chalcedon and Byzantion, in PBS, p. 143-157; Livia BUZOIANU: The territory of Tomis in the early Roman period in the light of epigraphic documents. I, in PBS, p. 174-202 [co-authorship M. Bărbulescu]. Our research outcomes on extra-Pontic relations – with cities, regions and dynasts outside the Pontic area, respectively Rome – were reflected in the presentations made during international congresses and symposia mentioned in the present report (11 presentations) and will be published in 2014. In addition to this we would like to mention the conference hold by Victor Cojocaru at the University of Vienna on June 5, as part of the lecture series “Congiarium” (Forschungskolloquium zur Lateinischen Epigraphik und Römischen Geschichte) – “Die Proxenie im pontischen Raum”.

· to identify a possible model for the integration of the west coast of Pontus in the Roman Empire (Florian Matei-Popescu). The successful accomplishment of the mid-term goal was reflected in the publication of the following study Legal status and territory of Histria in Roman times, in PBS, p. 203–233. See also the presentation mentioned in Part A 4 of the present report.

· to prepare a comprehensive study regarding ceramic containers used for the import and export of certain products: olive oil, wine, fish products (Andrei Opaiţ). The successful accomplishment of the mid-term goal was reflected in a study ready to be published in SCIVA (CNCS B): Production and consumption of wine and fish in the lands between the Carpathians and the Black Sea (2nd century B.C – 3rd century A.D.). Beginning with May 1, 2013, Andrei Opait stopped his collaboration with the team working in the PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0054 project.

· to make a comprehensive study regarding the production and trade of glass vessels in the Black Sea area in Hellenistic and Roman era (Costel Chiriac & Sever Botan). The successful accomplishment of the mid-term goal was reflected in the publication of the following study Hellenistic and Roman glassware in Pontus between production and import, in PBS, p. 278-318 & 439-451. See also the presentation mentioned in Part A 4 of the present report.

· to elaborate a comprehensive study regarding tiles production workshops in the Black Sea in the context of Hellenistic coroplastic and establish the relationship between the Pontic workshops and models of the Aegean world (Iulian Bîrzescu). The successful accomplishment of the mid-term goal was reflected in the publication of the following study Tiles and plastic vessels with zoomorphic representations from sanctuaries in the Greek colonies of the Black Sea area, in PBS, p. 414-427 & 462-463. See also the presentation mentioned in Part A 4 of the present report.

· to elaborate a comprehensive study regarding Pontic colonies relations with the Aegean world as reflected in the sculptural art (Florina Panait Bîrzescu). The successful accomplishment of the mid-term goal was reflected in the publication of the following study Common iconographic models from the Pontic cities in the Hellenistic and Roman periods, in PBS, p. 393-413 & 457-461. See also the presentation mentioned in Part A 4 of the present report.

· to elaborate a comprehensive study concerning the movement of goods in the western Black Sea basin, as reflected by the “commercial type” seals found in the Greek towns the area in Roman times (1st–3rd centuries A.D.) Research outcomes were presented at two above-mentioned international scientific events.

· to elaborate a comprehensive study regarding trade relations of the West coast cities in Roman times based on numismatic discoveries (Lucian Munteanu). The successful accomplishment of the mid-term goal was reflected in the publication of the following study Connections of west-Pontic Greek cities with barbarian populations in the Hellenistic period. Numismatic evidence, in PBS, p. 358-392. See also the presentation mentioned in Part A 4 of the present report.

· George Bilavschi and Diana Stah – through continuous support offered to the project director in issues related to management – contributed to the accomplishment of remaining project goals. Based on their contribution a frame for collaboration of the present team members in a larger international context was created. What we mean here is the exploration of possibilities of continuing the current project PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0054 with a funding scheme within H2020 (SC6 – Europe in a changing world [inclusive, innovative and reflective societies], SC7 – Secure societies [protecting freedom and security of Europe and its citizens], MSCA). At the same time, we focused on the changing dynamics of European Research Policies and their potential short- and middle-term impact on opportunities to reach future resources for our current research endeavors. At this point we have already initiated a dialogue with some national and foreign partner institutions on the possibility to implement a European-funded project which could bring the research endeavors of the current project to a new level. Likewise, we count on a similarly efficient cooperation we have had so far with the administrative staff of the Romanian Academy, the Branch of Iaşi.

To conclude with, we believe that – in full compliance with the objectives for stage 2013 (correlated with the goals accomplished during stages 2011 and 2012) – we managed to reach the major mid-term goals of our project, namely, publication of a collective work which would reflect, in a more complex and compelling way than before, the external contacts maintained among the urban Pontic communities. The collective volume mentioned earlier (see Part A 5) is the best evidence in this respect. By organizing the International Symposium “Interconnectivity in the Mediterranean and Pontic World during the Hellenistic and Roman Periods” we managed to convincingly announce our participation in an international prospective dialogue on the Greek polis in the Hellenistic and Roman era.

         Visit our project website for more details related to research outcomes accomplished in the PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0054 project (


                                                                                                Project Director,


                                                                                             Dr. Victor Cojocaru

Last Updated on Tuesday, 29 July 2014 08:18



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